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双语对照:新中国成立70周年乡村振兴和扶贫攻坚发布会


来源:国新办 ???作者:天之聪教育???时间:2019-09-30 11:02???点击: 次??

庆祝中华人民共和国成立70周年活动新闻中心负责人赵江涛:

Zhao Jiangtao, person in charge of the Press Center for the Celebration of the 70th Anniversary of the Founding of the People's Republic of China:?

尊敬的记者朋友们,女士们、先生们,大家上午好。欢迎出席新闻中心第三场新闻发布会。今天发布的主题是:乡村振兴和扶贫攻坚。

Ladies and gentlemen, media friends, good morning. Welcome to the third press conference held in the press center. The theme of this conference is rural revitalization and poverty alleviation.?

新中国成立70年来,中国农业农村经历长足的发展,取得了举世瞩目的历史性成就。中国人民从站起来到富起来,脱贫攻坚工作不断地深入推进,距离全面建成小康社会的目标越来越近。

Since the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949, substantial developments have been achieved in the work related to agriculture and rural areas. Remarkable achievements have been recorded, indeed. The Chinese people have risen up and become rich. With the continuous progress of poverty alleviation, we are getting closer to completing the task of building a moderately prosperous society in all aspects.

今天,我们非常高兴地邀请到中央农村工作领导小组办公室主任、农业农村部部长韩长赋先生,国务院扶贫开发领导小组办公室主任刘永富先生。两位发布人将向大家介绍乡村振兴和扶贫攻坚有关情况,并回答大家的提问。

Today, we are delighted to invite Mr. Han Changfu, director of the Office of the Central Rural Work Leading Group and minister of agriculture and rural affairs, and Mr. Liu Yongfu, director of the Office of State Council Leading Group of Poverty Alleviation and Development, to brief you. They will make an introduction of relevant work and answer some of your questions.?

下面请韩长赋先生作介绍。

Now, I'll give the floor first to Mr. Han Changfu.

中央农村工作领导小组办公室主任、农业农村部部长韩长赋:

Han Changfu, director of the Office of the Central Rural Work Leading Group, minister of agriculture and rural affairs:

女士们、先生们,新闻界的朋友们:

上午好!

Ladies and gentlemen, media friends, good morning.?

周一我们迎来了第二个中国农民丰收节,习近平总书记专门致信向全国农民祝贺节日,强调农业根基稳,发展底气足。这是对新中国成立70年农业农村发展成就的最有力肯定。70年来,改革开放以来,特别是党的十八大以来,我国农业农村发展走过辉煌的历程。70年沧桑巨变,“三农”领域有很多事值得大书特书。这里,我想重点介绍五大历史性成就:

Monday marked the second Chinese Farmers' Harvest Festival. General Secretary Xi Jinping wrote a congratulatory letter to all Chinese farmers on this occasion. He pointed out that, with a solid foundation laid by agriculture, we have full confidence in national development. This is a ringing endorsement of China's achievements in agriculture and rural areas in the past 70 years.?

Over the past 70 years, since the reform and opening up program was launched in 1978, and especially the holding of the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China (CPC) in 2012, China has recorded remarkable development in its agricultural endeavors and rural areas. I want to introduce this from five different aspects.

一是成功解决了14亿中国人的吃饭问题。吃饱肚子是中国老百姓孜孜以求的梦想,但历朝历代都没能圆上这个温饱梦,只有在中国共产党的领导下,才端稳了中国人的饭碗。1949年,我国粮食产量仅有2264亿斤,70年里先后迈过11个千亿斤台阶,现在已连续4年稳定在1.3万亿斤以上,还有“油瓶子”“菜篮子”“果盘子”也是供应充足,我们用9%的耕地养活了近20%的人口,这是世界农业史上的奇迹,这也充分体现了中国特色社会主义制度的优越性。

First, we successfully addressed the problem of hunger in the country. The Chinese people longed for adequate food, but were unable to achieve it for thousands of years. Under CPC leadership, we were able to realize that dream. In 1949, China's total grain yield was only 226.4 billion jin (1 jin=0.5 kilogram). Now, the figure has been at a stable level above 1.3 trillion jin for four years. The supply of edible oil, vegetables and fruit have also been adequate. China feeds approximately 20% of the world's population with 9% of the available arable land. This is widely recognized as a miracle in global agricultural history. It showcases the superiority of socialism with Chinese characteristics. 

二是基本消除了农村绝对贫困。改革开放初期农村贫困人口有7.7亿,2018年底减少到1660万,2020年即将全部脱贫。农村民生也发生翻天覆地的变化,扣除物价因素,农民人均可支配收入比1949年实际增长40倍,达到14617元,超过99%的建制村通了硬化路,新型农村合作医疗、农村社会养老保险、农村义务教育实现全覆盖,农民有了更多获得感和幸福感。

Second, absolute poverty has been basically eliminated in rural areas. In the initial years after the reform and opening up in 1978, a total of 770 million people lived in poverty in rural areas. By the end of 2018, the figure had fallen to 16.6 million. In 2020, poverty will be completely eliminated. Adjusted for inflation, the annual per capita disposable income of farmers reached 14,617 yuan, a 40-fold increase from 1949. More than 99% of administrative villages are linked to paved roads. The new rural cooperative medical insurance system, rural old-age insurance system and compulsory education cover all in rural areas. 

三是农业现代化有了质的飞跃。农业生产方式发生革命性变化,可以说和过去相比已不可同日而语。农业科技进步贡献率达到58.3%,良种实现全覆盖,旱涝保收、高产稳产的高标准农田达到6.4亿亩,粮食作物耕种收综合机械化率已经超过80%,可以说农民面朝黄土背朝天、人拉牛耕已经成为历史,我国农业进入主要依靠科技装备驱动的新阶段。质量兴农、绿色兴农加快发展,农药化肥使用量实现负增长,现在打农药也从过去的肩扛手提变成了无人机作业。手机已经成为农民的新农具,农民坐在家里划划手机就能了解技术和市场信息,甚至可以控制浇水和施肥。

Third, agriculture has witnessed a qualitative leap in modernization. Revolutionary changes have taken place regarding production methods. Technology now contributes to 58.3% of agricultural production. Improved seeds are used in all regions. The total area of quality farmland has reached 640 million mu (1 mu=0.67 hectare). Machines have been used in regard to over 80% of the grain crops for plowing, sowing and harvesting.? 

四是形成了一套中国特色的“三农”政策体系。改革开放以来,我们实行家庭承包责任制,坚持多予少取放活方针,告别延续2600多年的“皇粮国税”,建立农业补贴制度,土地承包期将再延长30年,推行“三权分置”改革,搭建起农业支持保护和农村改革发展稳定的制度框架,这些重要的制度性成果将长期起作用,也将长期坚持。

Fourth, regarding agriculture, rural areas and the well-being of farmers, a set of policies with Chinese characteristics have been launched. In 1978, China began to launch the household contract responsibility system with income linked to output. The agricultural tax implemented for over 2,600 years was finally eliminated. Agricultural subsidy system has been established. The current round of contracts covering rural land will be extended for another 30 years upon expiration. Reform separating land ownership, contract and management rights for contracted rural land has been launched. We will maintain a long-term commitment to these major policies. 

五是开启了乡村振兴新篇章。党的十九大提出实施乡村振兴战略,这是我们解决温饱、摆脱贫困后的又一历史性任务,是新时代“三农”工作总抓手。两年来,乡村振兴全面启动,规划体系、政策体系不断完善,农村经济、政治、文化、社会、生态和党的建设在统筹推进。

Fifth, a new chapter in rural revitalization has been opened. At the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China (CPC), the strategy of rural revitalization was announced. This is another historic task we must fulfill after addressing hunger and poverty in the country. It is also the main focus of the work related to agriculture, rural areas and the well-being of farmers in the new era. In the past two years, the campaign of rural revitalization has got underway in all aspects. An integrated development of economic, political, cultural, social, ecological and Party building work has been promoted throughout the rural areas.

70年农业农村发展有很多宝贵经验,最根本的有两条:一条是始终坚持党对“三农”工作的全面领导,保证“三农”改革发展始终沿着正确方向前进;一条是始终坚持农民主体地位,尊重农民首创精神,保护调动农民的积极性创造性。

In the past seven decades, we have accumulated many precious experiences. Among them are two fundamental ones. First, we must always maintain the CPC's leadership in the work related to agriculture, rural areas and the well-being of farmers, to ensure it proceeds in the correct direction. Second, we must always maintain farmer's leading role, and respect their pioneering spirit.

当前,“三农”形势持续向好,我们将深入学习贯彻习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想,特别是总书记关于“三农”工作的重要论述,坚持农业农村优先发展总方针,全面推进乡村振兴,实现农业强、农村美、农民富!我就介绍到这里。

Presently, all works related to agriculture, rural areas and the well-being of farmers are proceeding toward a good direction. We will continue to study and implement Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era. Particular attention will be given to General Secretary Xi Jinping's important instructions concerning our work. Guided by the strategy of putting agriculture and rural areas first in development, we will promote rural revitalization in all aspects, so as to make national agriculture stronger, the rural areas more beautiful and farmers more prosperous.

赵江涛:

Zhao Jiangtao:

谢谢韩长赋先生。下面请刘永富先生介绍情况。

Thank you, Mr. Han. Now, Iet's invite Mr. Liu to give an introduction.

国务院扶贫开发领导小组办公室主任刘永富:

Liu Yongfu:

各位记者朋友上午好。感谢大家长期以来对中国扶贫事业的关注和支持,欢迎大家参加今天的发布会。我们已向大家提供了一个背景材料,我再简要介绍一些情况。

Good morning, media friends. Thank you for your continuous attention and support for China's poverty alleviation undertakings. Welcome to today's press conference.

再过几天,中国人民将迎来新中国成立70周年。70年来,中国共产党带领全国各族人民自力更生、奋发图强、改革创新、接续努力,在人口最多的发展中国家消除农村绝对贫困,走出一条中国特色扶贫开发道路,创造中国历史上的减贫奇迹。

The Chinese people will celebrate the 70th anniversary of the PRC founding in a few days. Over the past 70 years, the CPC has led the Chinese people of all ethnic groups in eradicating absolute poverty in the rural areas of the world's most populous developing country, creating a miracle of poverty reduction in national history.

新中国成立前,国家积贫积弱,人民一贫如洗。中国共产党和中国政府秉持以人民为中心理念,发挥中国共产党领导和社会主义制度的政治优势,把消除贫困、改善民生、实现共同富裕作为矢志不渝的奋斗目标。一是坚持以经济建设为中心,实施改革开放,保持经济健康平稳发展,为大规模减贫奠定坚实物质基础;二是坚持把扶贫开发纳入国家总体发展战略,分阶段明确减贫目标和扶贫标准,制定专项规划,开展大规模扶贫行动;三是坚持开发式扶贫方针,改善贫困地区贫困人口的生产生活条件,提升自我发展能力,发展生产,增加收入;四是坚持精准方略,普惠和特惠相结合,在促进农村、农业、农民发展的过程中,对贫困人口格外关爱,实施特惠政策,做到分类施策、应扶尽扶;五是坚持大扶贫格局,动员全社会共同参与,形成跨地区、跨部门、跨单位、全民参与的社会扶贫体系。

In the past, the old and weak China were mired in poverty, and people overall lived in dire misery. The CPC and the Chinese government, guided by the principle of putting the people first, making use of the political advantages of the CPC's leadership and the socialist system, and regarding the eradication of poverty, made improving people's livelihood and achieving common prosperity as our unswerving goals. First, we focused on economic development, carrying out reform and opening up, and maintaining sound and steady economic development, laying a solid foundation for large-scale poverty reduction. Second, we included poverty alleviation and rural development into China's overall development strategy, formulate special plans after identifying poverty reduction targets and standards for different stages, and carried out a large-scale poverty alleviation program. Third, we have always upheld development-oriented policies in poverty alleviation, seeking to improve the working and living conditions of people in poverty-stricken areas, enhancing their capacity to increase production and their incomes by their own efforts. Fourth, we have adhered to a precise plan offering benefits for all, including special social groups. While promoting the development of rural areas, agriculture and farmers livelihood, we have given special care to poor people, carried out preferential and categorized policies, and helped all in real need. Fifth, we have mobilized participation by the whole society, and built a system that spans regions, government departments and organizations and involves all to address the challenges of poverty.

特别是党的十八大以来,以习近平同志为核心的党中央把贫困人口脱贫作为全面建成小康社会的底线任务和标志性指标,全面打响脱贫攻坚战。明确了脱贫攻坚的目标任务,这就是到2020年现行标准下农村贫困人口实现脱贫、贫困县全部摘帽、解决区域性整体贫困。确定了精准扶贫精准脱贫的基本方略,出台一系列超常规的政策举措,建立脱贫攻坚的制度体系。在习近平总书记亲自率领下,形成了省市县乡村五级书记抓扶贫、全党合力促攻坚的生动局面。经过6年多的不懈努力,脱贫攻坚取得决定性进展和重大历史性成就。

Since the 18th CPC National Congress in particular, the CPC Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core, has taken poverty alleviation as a primary task and a defining indicator for building a moderately prosperous society in all respects, and launched a battle against poverty throughout society. We identified the targets and tasks for poverty alleviation, that is, by 2020, there must be no longer be any rural people living below the current poverty line; there must be no more impoverished counties, and regional poverty must be eradicated. We identified the basic strategy for targeted poverty alleviation, introduced a series of unconventional policies and measures, and established a policy system designed to achieve our objectives. Under the leadership of General Secretary Xi Jinping, Party secretaries at province, city, county, township and village levels have vigorously pushed forward the work on alleviating poverty; indeed, the whole Party has worked closely together to overcome difficulties. Over the past six years and more, we made decisive progress, with major historic achievements in poverty alleviation.  

一是精准扶贫精准脱贫成效显着,农村贫困人口大幅减少,即将消除农村绝对贫困。按照我国农村现行扶贫标准,2013-2018年,我国农村贫困人口累计减少8000多万人,每年减贫人数都保持在1200万以上,贫困发生率从10.2%下降到1.7%。832个贫困县,已脱贫摘帽436个。

First, we made remarkable progress in targeted poverty alleviation. We reduced the population of rural people living in poverty substantially, and we will eliminate absolute poverty in rural areas soon. According to China's current standard, from 2013 to 2018, the number of people living in poverty in China's rural areas was reduced by over 80 million, meaning that the number of people lifted out of poverty amounted to more than 12 million each year. The poverty incidence rate across the nation dropped from 10.2% to 1.7%. Of the 832 identified impoverished counties, 436 have been lifted out of poverty. 

二是贫困地区以脱贫攻坚统揽经济社会发展全局,贫困地区呈现出新的发展局面。贫困地区基础设施和公共服务投入大量增加,发展能力明显增强,特色优势产业迅速发展,生态环境显着改善,贫困群众生活质量稳步提升。贫困县国内生产总值年均增速高出全国平均水平2个多百分点,贫困地区农村居民人均可支配收入年均增速高出全国农村平均水平2.3个百分点,发展差距逐步缩小。在精准扶贫精准脱贫伟大实践中,农村基层党组织凝聚力和战斗力显着增强,农村基层治理能力和管理水平明显提高,党群干群关系不断改善,人民群众获得感明显提升,党在农村的执政基础进一步巩固。

Second, poor areas have taken on a new look now and lead economic and social development with poverty alleviation efforts. Poor areas have increased their investment in infrastructure and public services substantially, enhanced development capacity significantly, rapidly developed featured industries, improved the ecological environment dramatically, and improved the poor people's life with steady steps.

三是中国减贫加速了世界减贫进程,为全球减贫事业贡献了中国方案。中国是最早实现联合国千年发展目标的发展中国家,有组织有计划大规模的扶贫开发,尤其是精准扶贫方略的实施,走出了中国特色扶贫开发道路,为全球减贫提供了中国智慧和中国方案。

Third, China has greatly helped accelerate the pace of global poverty reduction through its own poverty reduction efforts, and contributed solutions to the global poverty reduction cause. As the first developing country to have achieved the U.N. millennium development goals, China planned and organized large-scale poverty alleviation and development, implemented strategies of targeted poverty alleviation in particular, figured out with a path of poverty alleviation with Chinese characteristics, and provided Chinese wisdom and solutions for global poverty reduction.

预计到今年底,全国95%左右现行标准的贫困人口将实现脱贫,90%以上的贫困县将实现摘帽,再经过2020年一年的努力,中华民族千百年来的绝对贫困问题将得到历史性解决。我们将在以习近平同志为核心的党中央坚强领导下,尽锐出战,攻坚克难,打赢脱贫攻坚战,迎接全面建成小康社会这一历史时刻的到来!下面,我很高兴回答大家就脱贫攻坚提出的问题。谢谢。

It is estimated that, under the current standard, about 95% of the poor people in China will be lifted out of poverty and over 90% of the poor counties will eliminate poverty by the end of this year. The Chinese nation will then eliminate absolute poverty in 2020. Under the strong leadership of the CPC Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core, we will make every effort to overcome difficulties, win the battle against poverty, and usher in the historic moment of completing the building of a moderately prosperous society in all respects.

赵江涛:

Zhao Jiangtao

谢谢刘永富先生。下面进入答问环节。请大家围绕本场发布会的主题进行提问。

Thank you, Mr. Liu. Now let's move into the Q&A session. You are welcome to raise questions focused on the theme of this press conference.

中新社记者:

China News Service:

我国有近14亿人口,粮食安全一直是社会高度关注的问题。请问韩部长,目前我国粮食安全状况如何?另外今年发生的草地贪夜蛾会不会影响粮食产量?

As China has a population of nearly 1.4 billion, food security has always been a matter of great public concern. My question is for Mr. Han. What is the current state of food security in China? In addition, will the damage caused by fall armyworms this year affect the grain output?

韩长赋:

Han Changfu:

你提这个问题非常重要。洪范八政,食为政首。我们党和国家始终把解决老百姓的吃饭问题作为治国理政的头等大事。习近平总书记多次强调,保障国家粮食安全是一个永恒的课题,任何时候这根弦都不能松。

You have raised a crucial question. Ensuring adequate food supply for the Chinese people has always been the top priority for the Communist Party of China (CPC) and the Chinese government. As General Secretary Xi Jinping has stressed on many occasions, to ensure food security remains a perennial issue, and we must always give it great importance.

关于粮食安全的状况,2004年以来,我国粮食产量已经实现了创记录的“十五连丰”,近4年都保持在1.3万亿斤以上,我们的人均粮食占有量已经达到了470多公斤,明显超过了FAO确定的粮食安全平均线水平。所以我们的粮食安全是有保障的。这里关键是三方面:

In regard to food security in China, since 2004, grain production has realized the goal of "15 good harvests in a row", which is a record-breaking achievement. The annual grain output in the past four years has been kept above 1.3 trillion jin (1 jin=0.5 kilogram), which translates to 470 kilograms a year per capita, clearly surpassing the average food security level set by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Therefore, China's food security has been ensured. Such achievement can be attributed to three main factors.

一是强化政策支持。首先是巩固农村的基本经营制度,培育新型经营主体,发展适度规模经营,同时实施耕地地力保护补贴、产粮大县奖励和生产者补贴这些强农惠农富农政策,调动政府重农抓粮和农民种粮的积极性。

First, we strengthened the role of policy in providing robust support to ensure China's food security.

二是守住耕地红线。这不仅是数量,也是质量。我们在全国划定永久基本农田的基础上,划定了10.58亿亩的粮食生产功能区和重要农产品生产保护区,每年建设8000万亩高标准农田,到2022年全国将完成10亿亩高标准农田,可以基本上改变靠天吃饭这样一个局面。

Second, we have spared no efforts to ensure that China's arable land area does not fall below the red line in terms of both quantity and quality. On the basis of designating permanent basic cropland throughout the country, we established and developed 1.06 billion mu (1 mu=0.67 hectare) of functional zones for grain production and protected areas for the production of major agricultural products. We have also worked to develop 80 million mu of high-grade cropland every year, so that, by 2022, the total area will reach1 billion mu.

三是强化科技支撑。包括科技研发、现代种业、现代农机装备,我们现在主要农作物品种大体5年就可以大规模的更换一次。另外就是集成推广高产高效绿色生态的生产技术。现在全国粮食作物的平均单产已经提高到了374.7公斤,这个是新中国刚成立初期的5倍多。

Third, we have stepped up development of technical support in the agricultural sector. The average per-unit yield of grain crops has been raised to 374.7 kilograms, five times the level when the People's Republic of China (PRC) was founded

说到今年的粮食生产情况,夏粮和早稻已经丰收,夏粮是增产的。秋粮面积和去年基本持平,大部长势良好,现在秋收已经开始了,到今天已经近三成。据我部农情调度,如果后期也就是未来两个星期内,不发生大的台风或者霜冻这样的自然灾害,今年又迎来一个丰收年,有望第5年稳定在1.3万亿斤以上。

说到草地贪夜蛾,我也注意到媒体朋友都很关心,我们对这个问题也高度重视。这是一个迁飞性的害虫,主要危害像玉米这样的作物。今年我们大概20个左右的省发现了贪夜蛾,但是真正发生虫害的面积只有200多万亩,应该说比例还是比较小的,这主要是我们防控及时,措施有力,现在是从天上到地上,天上有雷达可以监测,地上有设备诱捕,见虫就灭,不让它暴发,所以控制得很好。但是这个事不能放松,因为它是一个迁飞性的害虫,可能明年还会卷土重来,所以我们要形成有效治理的机制。

总的来讲,保障国家粮食安全是我们农业农村部门的首要任务,我国粮食消费还处在一个刚性增长的阶段,应该说还是紧平衡,所以我们要继续贯彻国家的粮食安全战略,推进藏粮于地、藏粮于技,进一步增强粮食生产能力,同时优化粮食结构。

昨天晚上央视《焦点访谈》专门讲了粮食结构、优质专用小麦的生产问题,增加强筋和弱筋小麦、大豆等生产。总之,要保持粮食安全的长期稳定和高质量发展,要把中国人的饭碗牢牢端在自己手里。谢谢你。

In regard to grain production this year, according to research by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, we are expecting the fifth consecutive good harvest with more than 1.3 trillion jin of grain output, on the condition that there won't be any major natural disasters such as typhoons and frosts in the next two weeks. We are also placing great importance to dealing with the problem of fall armyworms. Although, the pest was found in some 20 provinces this year, only about 2 million mu of farmland were damaged, which is a comparatively small figure. This should be attributed to our timely and effective measures of pest control and prevention.?

In conclusion, to ensure national food security is the top priority for the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs. As China's grain consumption is still in a stage of stubborn rise, and is tightly balanced, we need to continuously implement the country's food security strategy, increasing grain production based on farmland management and the application of technology, so as to further improve grain productivity and the overall crop structure.

With these issues in mind, we will work to ensure the long-term stability and high-quality development of China's food security endeavor, so that we always have control over our own food supply. Thank you.

中国纪检监察报记者:

China Discipline Inspection Daily:

请问刘永富主任,如何避免数字脱贫、虚假脱贫,以及如何巩固脱贫成果,防止返贫?这两年全国“两会”期间,刘主任重点谈到整治扶贫领域的腐败和作风问题,那么现在您觉得整治效果怎么样?在哪些方面还需要进一步加大力度?谢谢。

May I ask Mr. Liu Yongfu, how to prevent the falsification and manipulation of numbers in poverty elimination, and how to consolidate the accomplishments of poverty alleviation and prevent people lapsing back into poverty? During the national two sessions in the past two years, you stressed dealing with corruption and undesirable work styles in the poverty alleviation field. So, how do you feel about the effects of handling these issues now? In what ways does the work need to be further strengthened? Thank you.

刘永富:

Liu Yongfu:

谢谢你的提问,关于防止数字脱贫、虚假脱贫,主要从三个方面来做工作:

Thank you for your questions. Regarding prevention of the falsification and manipulation of numbers in poverty elimination, we mainly operate from three aspects:?

一是要扶真贫、真扶贫。扶的是真正的穷人,脱的是真正达到了脱贫标准的人。这就要求我们做到“三实”,即扶贫工作务实、帮扶过程扎实、脱贫结果真实。

First, poverty alleviation should reach those who truly need it and deliver genuine outcomes. This requires us to realize three things truthfully, which are, pragmatic poverty alleviation work, solid support processes and true poverty alleviation outcomes.

二是严格退出标准和程序,并且要进行严格的考核评估,是不是达到了脱贫的标准,退出是不是符合程序,要做好评估,数字是要核实的,社会是要公认的,结果是要真实的。

Second, we should ensure we have strict standards and procedures for determining whether people have been lifted out of poverty. We have carried out rigorous evaluations and assessments to verify the numbers. And the results should be real and recognized by the whole society.

三是对搞数字脱贫、虚假脱贫的,发现一起及时纠正一起,对情节严重的实行问责。这是我们防止数字脱贫、虚假脱贫方面做的工作。这几年下来,应该说还是有成效的。

Third, stern measures have been taken to address falsification and manipulation of numbers in poverty elimination. We will make sure to rectify any case in a timely manner once it is detected, and we will hold anyone to account if they commit serious misdeeds.

第二个问题,你刚才讲的巩固成果。第一条还是要保证脱贫的真实。第二,脱贫以后要稳定现行的扶贫政策,扶上马送一程。第三,要从长远着手,发展产业,增加就业,增加收入,让脱贫有可持续的能力。第四,对返贫的和新发生的贫困人口及时纳入进行帮扶。由于一些意外事件,包括灾害、疾病等,一部分人返贫或者新发生一部分贫困人口,这是必然的。所以我们在每年工作中都要动员基层进行核查。这几年返贫的人数已经从2016年的60万人左右降到目前的10万人以内,新发生的贫困人口从100多万人减到10万人以内。这些措施执行下来还是有效果的。

To answer your second question about how to consolidate the accomplishments of poverty alleviation, I would make the following observations. First, we must ensure that poverty alleviation work delivers genuine outcomes; second, we must steadily continue the current poverty alleviation policies after the people concerned have got rid of their poverty; third, we must start from a long-term perspective, develop industries, increase employment, increase income, and ensure the poverty alleviation work has sustainable effects; fourth, we must provide timely assistance for those who unfortunately lapse back into poverty as they used to be and those who become newly poor people.

第三个问题是关于扶贫领域腐败和作风建设。脱贫攻坚是来不得假、来不得虚的,更不能搞腐败,必须有严实的作风才能把这项工作做好。所以中央将2018年作为扶贫领域作风建设年,开展腐败和作风问题专项治理,主要的目的就是要把脱贫攻坚责任落实到位、政策落实到位、工作落实到位。现在总体上看进展是顺利的,效果是明显的,社会上对基层扶贫干部的作风和能力是认可的。当然,这里面仍然有一部分作风不实的帮扶干部,该换的换、该撤的撤、该批评教育的批评教育,对这些问题突出的,每年全国都有几万人受到一些批评教育甚至组织处理。另外,对表现好的提拔重用,建立正确的用人导向。

Your third question is about corruption and work style in poverty alleviation. The CPC central committee set 2018 as the year to improve the work style in poverty alleviation. Generally speaking, the campaign against corruption and undesirable work styles went smoothly, with outstanding achievements. The work style and abilities of officials at the grassroots are widely recognized. Of course, among them, there are still a few with an unacceptable work style. In these cases, we will seek to change, dismiss, criticize and educate them. Besides, we will promote the good ones and place them in important positions. By doing so, we can establish the correct orientation in appointing officials.

总体上看,现在扶贫领域的腐败问题是越来越少,比如说违规资金从2013年的15.7%下降到现在的1%以下,处理的人数也少了。还有我们广大扶贫干部,特别是基层扶贫干部为脱贫攻坚作出了重大贡献,他们不仅是作风好、工作实,有的甚至付出了鲜血和生命。到今年6月底,全国牺牲在扶贫岗位上的一共有770多人。谢谢。

On the whole, there are fewer and fewer corruption problems in the field of poverty alleviation. For example, the proportion of using or allocating funds in breach of regulations has fallen from 15.7% in 2013 to less than 1% now, and we have had to punish fewer people. In addition, poverty alleviation officials, especially those working at the grassroots, have made significant contributions to poverty alleviation. They not only exhibit a good work style, but also work hard, and some have even made sacrifices and paid with their own lives. By the end of June this year, there were more than 770 people who died while working for poverty alleviation. Thank you.

日本读卖新闻记者:

Yomiuri Shimbun:

目前全国脱贫攻坚战的焦点在于为了可持续发展而促进农民的创业,我也采访过一些推动的新产业,但是可以看得出来有些农民没有专业知识,实行起来没有那么简单。请问目前在全国各地推动的新产业发展有多大规模?能否提供具体的数据。另外对于这些新产业今后的发展有何展望?

Currently, the poverty alleviation work targets sustainable development and encouraging entrepreneurship by the rural population. I have carried out interviews in the rural areas and noticed that some farmers don't have the relevant professional knowledge. So, my question is that what is the scale of rural industrial development across the country? Are there any specific statistics available? And what are the next steps for these new rural industries?

韩长赋:

Han Changfu:

你讲到的是怎么通过产业扶贫和乡村创业来减少贫困的问题。习近平总书记反复强调,产业是发展的根基,产业扶贫是稳定脱贫的根本之策。从这些年的实践看,发展产业和支持创业是“五个一批”中带贫面最广、脱贫人数最多的。只要一个地方选准了产业,让贫困户加入进来,就能有效减少贫困和防止返贫。我在这里给大家介绍一组数据:截至目前,贫困地区累计建成各类扶贫产业基地10万个以上,现在已经有92%的贫困户通过“龙头企业+合作社+贫困户”等方式参与到产业发展当中。各地为此组建了4100多个产业扶贫技术专家组,而且还聘请了产业发展指导员26万人。据国家统计局统计,2019年上半年贫困地区农村居民人均可支配收入5216元,比上年同期实际增长了8.4%,这个增速比全国农民平均增速快了1.8个百分点。

Your question is about how to lift rural people out of poverty through development of industries and entrepreneurship. General Secretary Xi Jinping has stressed that industries are the foundation of economy, and industrial development is key to poverty alleviation. Looking back over these years of much effort, spurring development of industries and entrepreneurship is the most effective way of lifting people out of poverty. I can share with you some data. To date, over 100,000 industrial bases related to the work of poverty alleviation have been built in the poverty-stricken areas. Thanks to the support of local leading companies and cooperatives, 92% of the rural poor households have been able to take part in the industrial development process.

你说到的现象我们也注意到,现在农村产业扶贫最大的一个困难就是怎么培育和发展长效产业,建立稳定脱贫长效机制,贫困地区产业总体比较弱,规模小、链条短,有些地方还存在同质化、竞争力不强的问题。当前,脱贫攻坚已经进入最后冲刺阶段,我们将总结推广一些地方好的经验,重点加强以下三方面工作:

We have noticed the issue you mentioned just now. The biggest challenge we face now in poverty alleviation is how to foster sustainable industries and establish a long-term, effective mechanism for stable poverty reduction. There still exist some other problems. For instance, the industries for poverty-relief purposes are generally weak and small in scale with short chains, and some of them need to solve the problem of homogeneity and strengthen competitiveness. We need to strengthen our work in the following three aspects:

第一,突出特色产业发展。有些地方经济上不发达,但有独特的生态优势,发展特色产业潜力巨大。我们将加强规划和引导,支持贫困地区挖掘特色资源,发展特色产业。

First, we will strengthen fostering of specialized industries. Some poverty-stricken areas have unique ecological advantages which we can tap to develop distinctive industries.

第二,强化产销衔接。现在没有种不出来的东西,只有卖不掉的东西。贫困地区大多流通成本偏高,市场信息不太灵,加工仓储也比较缺乏,品牌建设比较滞后,要把这些问题解决好,主要是靠搞好产销对接。现在我们已经组织了多种形式的产销对接活动,比如组织很多大的电商企业参与贫困地区的农产品销售,在很多城市建立了贫困地区农产品销售网点和渠道,发挥了重要的作用。下一步,我们将继续集中精力搞好产销对接,把贫困地区的特色资源、生态资源转化为市场优势、品牌优势和经济优势。

Second, we will better connect production and sales. We have held various forms of promotional events to connect production with marketing. For example, many large e-commerce companies now take part in selling agricultural products from poverty-stricken areas, with efficient sales networks and channels established in many cities across the country. Such measures have played an important role in reducing poverty. We will focus on ways to connect production and marketing in an even more efficient way.

第三,进一步健全利益联结机制。就是要让贫困户更好地加入产业发展当中来。我们将总结推广订单帮扶、股份合作、园区带动、生产托管、扶贫车间等带贫模式,让贫困户参与进来。有劳动能力的贫困户参加生产,没有劳动能力的可以入股,因为中央有很多扶贫政策和资金,他们可以通过和新型经营主体建立利益联结机制来分享收益。总之,当前要把产业扶贫作为脱贫攻坚“五个一批”的重点来抓,长远要通过它把脱贫攻坚和乡村产业振兴衔接起来,使贫困户能够持续增收,巩固脱贫成果。

Third, we need to improve the interest-binding mechanism to encourage more poor households to participate in industrial development. A series of measures, including customized production, joint-stock partnerships, construction of industrial parks, managed services for agricultural production, and establishing poverty alleviation workshops, will be carried out. Those poor rural people with appropriate labor ability can take part in production activities, while those who lost this labor ability can receive benefits by taking up shares in a business. The central government has considered many preferential policies and allocated funds to help them share the benefits through the interest-binding mechanism.

刘永富:

Liu Yongfu:

我补充介绍一点情况,不管是农民的创业还是贫困人口通过发展产业来脱贫,都会碰到很多困难和问题,难度还是挺大的。因为有些贫困人口比如搞养殖,养羊、养牛、养猪得病了、死掉了,种果树,不会防病防虫,不会施肥剪枝疏果,所以效果不好。针对这些情况我们有这么几条措施:

I'd like to add something further. No matter whether encouraging farmers to start their businesses or developing local industries, there are many difficulties and problems in the poverty alleviation work. Some of them are rather serious. For example, some poor rural families may raise livestock, but the animals may get sick and die. Some of them try to grow fruit trees, but they don't know how to effectively prevent and control diseases and pests, and don't master the adequate fertilizing, pruning and fruit thinning methods, so they cannot have a good yield. We are taking measures as follows to cope with such issues.

一是培训。组织贫困人口进行培训,提升他们的技能。采取现场培训,不是课堂培训,提升技能、能力的同时,也转变观念、培养市场意识。我们注意到,一般贫困户即使培训了,也只能操作,很难办起企业。因此,我们就注重培训贫困村创业致富带头人。我们计划在全国12万个贫困村,脱贫攻坚期内培育四五十万带头人,现在已经培训了30多万人,这些带头人培训以后就可以组织贫困户参与到产业发展当中来。

First, we have organized training programs for poor rural people to enhance their skills, and we focus on training of entrepreneurship-based poverty relief leaders in poor villages. We plan to have 400,000 to 500,000 leaders in a total of 120,000 poor villages to help more villagers achieve prosperity. We already have more than 300,000 such role models in place.

二是支持贫困人口的创业政策。比如说贫困户想创业搞产业,但没有启动资金,那么政府就给他发放5万元以下3年以内、免抵押、免担保、基准利率放贷、扶贫资金贴息、县建风险基金的扶贫小额信贷。现在已经在全国1400多万贫困户中发放了5800多亿元,基本上近半数的贫困户获得了贷款支持。

Second, we have rolled out policies to support business startups by poor rural residents. For those poor people who lack initial funds for this purpose, the government will provide them with micro credit. So far, we have offered more than 580 billion yuan to over 14 million poor households, which means that nearly half of the identified poor households have received such financial support.

三是搞一些引导。宣传推介一些先进经验,让贫困户就近学习,用身边的先进来引导他们。同时,回引一些本土人才。总之,我们要在发展产业的过程中把贫困人口带动起来,在全民创业的过程中把培训贫困人口和贫困村创业致富带头人作为工作的一个重点来做。谢谢。

Third, we have carried out relevant guidance. We have introduced and promoted advanced experiences drawn from across the country and encouraged the participation of more professionals in poverty alleviation.

人民日报、人民网记者:

People's Daily:

实施乡村振兴战略提出已经快两年时间了,中央农办、农业农村部在推进实施战略推进过程中采取了哪些措施?取得了哪些成效?

It has been two years since the rural revitalization strategy was put forward. What measures have the Office of the Central Rural Work Leading Group and the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs taken to implement the strategy and what achievements have been made?

韩长赋:

Han Changfu:

党的十九大提出实施乡村振兴战略,习近平总书记讲,这是新时代“三农”工作的总抓手,要全面推进乡村产业振兴、人才振兴、文化振兴、生态振兴和组织振兴。这两年来,党中央高度重视,各地各部门采取有力措施,乡村振兴战略实施开局良好,取得了积极成效。在这个过程中,主要是抓了这样几件事:

The rural revitalization strategy was put forward at the 19th CPC National Congress. General Secretary Xi Jinping stressed that it was the key task of the work concerning agriculture, rural areas and the well-being of farmers in the new era, and efforts should be made to promote revitalization of rural industries, development of necessary talents, culture, ecology and organization. Over the past two years, the CPC Central Committee has placed great emphasis on implementation and all departments and localities have taken effective measures, enabling us to make a good start with positive results. During the process, efforts were mainly made in the following aspects:?

一是科学制定规划。中央印发了全国乡村振兴战略规划,部署了一系列重大工程、重大计划和重大行动,配套实施了农村人居环境整治三年行动。各省都出台省级的乡村振兴战略规划,大多数市县也制定了市县规划和方案,从中央到地方,乡村振兴的蓝图已经绘就,任务书、施工图都已经明确。今天下午我们还将在河北邢台召开村庄规划工作会,就是要引导村庄科学规划建设,保障乡村振兴有序推进、科学发展。

First, we emphasized proper planning. The CPC Central Committee issued a national rural revitalization strategy plan mapping out a series of key projects, plans and actions and launched a three-year national action to achieve improvements in the rural living environment. All provinces have issued their own provincial-level rural revitalization plans, while most cities and counties carried out a similar task. A blueprint has been drawn up at all levels with clear assignments and agendas.? 

二是推广浙江经验。习近平总书记在浙江工作期间,亲自部署和推动实施了“千村示范、万村整治”工程,在浙江打造了一批生态宜居的美丽乡村,为其他地区提供了可学可鉴的样板。现在,各地到浙江调研,不用专门安排路线,想去什么地方就去什么地方,到处都是美丽乡村。中央农办、农业农村部、国家发展改革委已经系统总结了浙江“千万工程”的成功经验,中央转发全国。现在,我们与浙江正在共同建设乡村振兴示范省,通过典型引路带动全国乡村振兴。

We promoted the "Zhejiang experience". When General Secretary Xi Jinping worked in Zhejiang Province, he arranged and pushed forward the implementation of the project of "One Thousand Demonstration Villages, Ten Thousand Renovation Villages", which created a batch of beautiful villages with a pleasant living environment, offering an example for other places to learn from. Now, when delegations from elsewhere visited Zhejiang, there is no need to arrange special routes as they can see beautiful villages everywhere. Zhejiang is now being built into a rural revitalization demonstration province guiding implementation of the national strategy. 

三是展开工作布局。去年一年,我们重点是抓工作布局。按照“产业兴旺、生态宜居、乡风文明、治理有效、生活富裕”的总要求,中央已经就发展乡村产业、改善农村人居环境、加强乡村治理和乡风文明建设出台了专门的指导意见,召开了会议进行部署。现在,农村已经涌现出一大批各具特色的乡土产业,去年全国休闲农业和乡村旅游收入超过8000亿元,农产品网络销售额接近3000亿元。农村人居环境整治已经全面推开,开展农村垃圾污水处理和厕所革命,去年已经完成1000万农户的改厕。另外,我们选择了100个县、100个乡镇和1000个村开展了乡村治理体系建设试点示范。

Third, we carried out work through a carefully planned layout. Last year, we focused on making an overall arrangement. Following the requirement of building rural areas with thriving businesses, a pleasant living environment, displaying good social etiquette and civility, effective governance and prosperity, the CPC Central Committee has issued guidance on developing rural industries, improving the living environment and enhancing governance and civility. Last year, the revenue of leisure agriculture and rural tourism exceeded 800 billion yuan and the online sales of agricultural products totaled 300 billion yuan. Rural areas carried out waste and sewage disposal and a "Toilet Revolution", and a total of 10 million rural households saw their toilets revolutionalized last year. 

四是强化机制保障。近期,党中央印发了《中国共产党农村工作条例》,这是我们党历史上首次专门就农村工作出台党内法规,为推动乡村振兴实施提供了政治和组织保障。另外,我们正在会同有关部门研究制定土地出让收入更多投向农业和农村的改革方案、建立乡村振兴实绩考核制度等,落实五级书记抓乡村振兴。

Fourth, we stepped up the provision of systematic assurances. Recently, the CPC Central Committee issued the CPC Rural Work Rules, forming the first regulation of the Party on rural work. It provided political and organizational guarantees for implementing the strategy. What's more, now we are undertaking research on compiling reform plans to introduce more land sales revenues to agriculture and the rural areas.

实施乡村振兴战略,中央已经提出了2020、2035和2050年三个阶段性乡村振兴目标,并明确由中央农办和农业农村部负责牵头落实乡村振兴战略。我们将按照中央部署要求,扎实有效推进各项工作,确保到2020年乡村振兴取得重要进展。谢谢。

To implement the rural revitalization strategy, the CPC Central Committee has put forward three phased goals to be reached by 2020, 2035 and 2050 respectively. We will follow the requirement, earnestly advance all the work and make solid progress by 2020. Thank you.

中央广播电视总台记者:

China Media Group:

我想问刘永富主任一个问题,2020年稳定实现农村人口不愁吃、不愁穿,义务教育、基本医疗、住房安全有保障,使贫困人口脱贫的基本要求和核心指标。今年4月份习近平总书记在解决“两不愁三保障”突出问题座谈会上作出专门部署,想请刘主任给我们介绍一下目前这项工作的进展情况。谢谢。

I would like to ask Mr. Liu a question. We have established the basic requirements and core objectives for lifting impoverished people out of poverty by 2020, so that the rural population will no longer have to worry about having adequate food and clothing, and are assured access to a full program of compulsory education, basic medical treatment and housing. In April this year, General Secretary Xi Jinping made special arrangements at a symposium on dealing with the issue of "two no worries and three guarantees". I would like to invite Mr. Liu to brief us on the progress in this regard. Thank you.

刘永富:

Liu Yongfu:

“两不愁三保障”是贫困人口脱贫的核心指标,这次脱贫攻坚要解决的是绝对贫困问题,标准有三个方面。一是农民人均纯收入达到4000块钱左右。二是“两不愁”,不愁吃、不愁穿,包括饮水安全。三是“三保障”,义务教育、基本医疗、住房安全有保障。这是我们这次消除绝对贫困的标准,如果达不到这个标准,不仅影响脱贫攻坚质量,而且也可以说没完成任务。所以要特别注意防止工作中出现死角。在今年4月重庆座谈会以后,我们主要做了这么几点:

"Two no worries and three guarantees" are the core objectives of the poverty alleviation work aiming to eliminate absolute poverty so as to meet three standards. First, farmers' per capita annual net income will reach around 4,000 yuan. Second, to realize the "two no worries", which refers those who have been living in poverty no longer having any worries about their food and clothing needs, as well as the goal to ensure they all have access to safe drinking water. Third, to achieve "three guarantees", which refers to giving impoverished people full access to compulsory education, basic medical treatment and housing security. Our job will never be completed if these aforementioned standards are not met. After the symposium in Chongqing this April, we have carried out the following actions:

一是坚持标准。既不能拔高,脱离国情、超越国情,又不能降低标准,影响质量和群众的获得感。这个标准具体是什么呢?义务教育有保障,就是九年制义务教育的适龄儿童、少年要有学上、能上学、上学方便,不失学辍学。基本医疗有保障,就是参加基本医疗保险、大病保险和医疗救助,得了常见病、慢性病,在县、乡、村三级医疗机构得到及时治疗,看得上病、看得起病。住房安全有保障,就是对农户特别是贫困户的住房都要进行鉴定。现在我们国家有危房的标准,ABCD四类,AB是安全的,C是要维修的,D是要重建的。饮水安全有保障,就是有水喝,喝上安全的水。当然,各地还可以进一步细化。

First, we have adhered to established standards. To what do these standards refer? Compulsory education is guaranteed. It means that all school-age children and adolescents have access to nine years of compulsory education. We will ensure that all of them are able to go to school and will not face the prospect of having to drop out at any stage. Basic medical treatment is guaranteed. It means that those who have been living in poverty will gain participation in the basic medical care insurance, serious disease insurance and medical aid. We have to make sure that medical institutions based in counties, townships and villages are fully accessible to impoverished people when they suffer common or chronic diseases, and ensure that they can afford the expense of the care involved. Housing security is guaranteed, which means that the housing conditions of rural people, the impoverished portion in particular, should be carefully evaluated. Drinking water safety is guaranteed, which means that people who have been living in poverty will have access to clean and safe drinking water. 

二是明确了责任。中央统筹,主要体现的是中央的主管部门要负起责任,要指导本行业解决这方面的问题。省负总责,就是省里细化标准,制定方案,市县两级组织实施,逐村逐户逐人逐项销号。三是摸底解决。今年4月以来,全国进行了全面排查,“两不愁三保障”里面,存在义务教育辍学的、看不上病的、住危房的和饮水不安全问题的共500多万人,有一部分是建档立卡贫困人口,有一部分是建档立卡之外的。这个数字还是不完全的统计,截至目前已经解决了300多万人,还有170多万人没有解决,这170多万人将在今年年底前基本解决。现在大体的进展情况就是这样的。谢谢。

Second, we have clarified operational responsibilities. First, the central government undertakes overall planning, which means the major authorities of the central government should take the responsibility to provide guidance in the fight against poverty. Second, governments at provincial level undertake the major responsibility to specify standards and make detailed plans that will then be strictly implemented by city and township governments step by step, so that every single family will finally escape from poverty. Third, we have conducted a survey and solved problems accordingly. A comprehensive investigation has been carried out nationwide since April, with more than five million people being found to have suffering from the problems related to the "two no worries and three guarantees", including cases of youngsters dropping out of school, families having no access to medical treatment, living in dilapidated housing and exposed to unsafe drinking water. Over three million of them have managed to escape from this situation up until now, and the remaining more than 1.7 million people are expected to turn the corner by the end of this year.?  

香港紫荆杂志记者:

Hong Kong's Bauhinia Magazine:

去年全国人大先后出台了《土地管理法》、《土地承包法》修正案,社会各界对土地问题高度关注。请问韩部长,深化农村土地制度改革的进展如何?

Last year, the National People's Congress successively publicized amendments to the Land Administration Law and the Law on Rural Land Contracting, which have attracted great attention from all walks of life. My question is for Mr. Han. What progress has been made in deepening reform of the rural land system?

韩长赋:

Han Changfu:

你提的问题很重要。土地是农业之本,也是农民的命根子。近年来,农业快速发展,农村社会保持稳定,其中很重要的一条就是我们始终坚持并且不断巩固家庭承包经营责任制,稳定农村土地承包关系。大家都知道,中国农村的改革是从土地制度改革开始的,下个阶段深化农村改革还要坚持处理好农民和土地关系这条主线。从这方面来讲,重点是“三块地”。

You raise a very important question. China's rural reform began with the land system. In the next phase of deepening this reform, we will continue to focus on properly handling the relationship between farmers and land. Specifically, our work will focus on the following "three pieces of lands."

第一块地,就是承包地。这方面的改革主要是实行“三权分置”和搞好30年的延包,落实集体所有权、稳定农户承包权、放活土地经营权。更好地激活土地权能,培育新型经营主体,发展适度规模经营。现在全国耕地有5.4亿亩在各种主体间进行流转,有7200万户的农户参与了流转土地。有的是流转出去,有的是流转进来。土地承包到期之后再延长30年,这是党的十九大给广大农民的一颗“定心丸”,也写进了这次修订的《土地管理法》。从第一轮土地承包算起,我国农村土地承包关系将稳定75年,让各方面都有稳定的预期。目前,我们已经基本完成了农村承包地的确权登记,这为下一步的30年延包打下了基础。从明年开始,我们将选择一部分县市进行延包试点,总结经验,在试点基础上形成全国的配套政策和延包的办法,确保这项大政策能够很好地衔接、平稳地过渡。

The first piece is contracted rural land. Reform in this regard aims at improving the system for separating ownership, contract and management rights for contracted rural land, and well organizing the extension of current rural land contracts by another 30 years. We will ascertain the collective ownership of rural land, stabilize the contractual rights of rural households, and introduce more flexible policies over land management rights. We will work to further activate the powers and functions of rural land, cultivate new types of agricultural businesses, and facilitate the development of appropriately scaled-up agricultural operations. Presently, 540 million mu (about 36 million hectares) of arable land has been transferred among various entities across the country, and 72 million rural households have been able to participate in the land transfer process. The extension of the current rural land contracts by another 30 years was a decision made by the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China (CPC), which has reassured farmers and has also been written into the revised Land Administration Law. From the first round of land contracting, the system in rural areas will have thus been stabilized for 75 years, providing strong reassurance. 

第二块地,就是农村集体经营性建设用地。这次新修订的《土地管理法》明确,农村集体经营性建设用地在符合规划,并且经过三分之二以上集体经济组织成员同意的情况下,可以直接入市,这是一个重大的改革创新。大家知道,过去农村集体经营性建设用地是不能直接入市的,需要经过征地环节。据测算,全国农村集体经营性建设用地有4200多万亩,可以说这是一笔很大的财富,是农民财产性收入的重要来源,也是集体经济的重要支柱,所以一定要管好用好。

The second piece is rural collective land designated for business-related construction. The newly revised Land Administration Law makes it clear such land can enter the market directly when the transfer is in line with planning requirements and is approved by more than two-thirds of the members of the collective economic organizations involved, which is a major reform and innovation. It is estimated that there is more than 42 million mu (about 2.8 million hectares) of rural collective land designated for business-related construction, becoming an important source of farmers' property income. 

第三块地,就是农村宅基地。这是农民的重要财产。这一轮机构改革明确,农业农村部负责农村宅基地改革工作。这方面,2015年全国已经有33个县开展了改革试点。宅基地涉及到广大农民的切身利益,也涉及到农村的稳定。所以,下一步我们将按照稳慎推进的原则,再选择一批县和市,深化改革试点。重点是以宅基地的“三权分置”为抓手,探索落实宅基地的集体所有权,保证宅基地农户的资格权,适度放活宅基地的使用权,既保障农民权益,又为乡村振兴增添活力。我们相信,这“三块地”的改革将会为整个农村改革和制度建设奠定更加巩固和完善的基础。谢谢。

The third piece is rural land used for private housing. This is an important property right for farmers. In this regard, pilot reforms were carried out in 33 county-level administrative areas in 2015. Rural land used for private housing is closely related to the vital interests of farmers and the stability of all rural areas. Therefore, in the next stage, we will select another batch of counties and cities to deepen pilot reforms in accordance with the principle of advancing the reform on rural land used for private housing in a steady, prudent manner.

经济日报融媒体记者:

Economic Daily:

深度贫困地区脱贫攻坚问题一直倍受关注,2017年习近平总书记曾对攻克深度贫困堡垒提出明确要求,能否介绍一下如今这项工作的进展情况和下一步的安排?谢谢。

Poverty alleviation work in the extremely poor areas has long been drawing public attention. In 2017, General Secretary Xi Jinping set out clear requirements for winning the battle against deep-rooted poverty. Would you please give us a brief introduction to the achievements you have made up to now and your future arrangement? Thank you.

刘永富:

Liu Yongfu:

现在我们记者朋友对脱贫攻坚都非常熟悉,我看问的都是重要的问题。深度贫困问题是千百年来形成的,原因非常复杂。前几轮的扶贫都没有把深度贫困地区最后攻下来,这一次能不能攻下来关系到脱贫攻坚战能不能打赢,是一个难题,我们讲攻城拔寨主要就是讲这个,我们一定要防止深度贫困地区拖后腿。

The issue of extreme poverty has been taking shape for thousands of years. The causes of the problem are complicated. Despite several rounds of poverty alleviation previously, we failed to lift the extremely poor areas out of poverty. This remains a daunting task in our battle against poverty. Those areas of extreme poverty should not lag behind in China's overall poverty alleviation efforts.?

一是明确工作思路。按照总书记的指示和党中央国务院的部署,中央重点支持解决“三区三州”,即西藏、四省藏区、新疆南疆地区和四川凉山、云南怒江、甘肃临夏,各个省解决好自己区域内的深度贫困问题,中央各个部门要在政策支持、工作指导等方面,包括东西部扶贫协作和对口支援、中央单位定点扶贫工作都要支持深度贫困地区的脱贫攻坚,明确了这么一个工作思路。

First, we must adopt a clear approach. In accordance with the instructions of General Secretary Xi Jinping and the arrangements of the CPC Central Committee and the State Council, the central government provides strong support in the fight against poverty in the three regions and three prefectures identified as being affected by extreme poverty, namely Tibet, the Tibetan ethnic areas in Sichuan, southern Xinjiang, Liangshan in Sichuan, Nujiang in Yunnan, and Linxia in Gansu. Meanwhile, each province is seeking to tackle its extreme poverty issue within its own geographical jurisdiction. All the central government departments are required to provide support for poverty alleviation in extremely poor areas. 

二是确定深度贫困地区。“三区三州”是明确的,“三区三州”外,还有相当一部分深度贫困地区,比如云南昭通、贵州毕节这样的地方,各省再找出来,以市或者以县为单位,根据资源和实际编制脱贫攻坚的实施方案。三是加大支持力度。深度贫困地区自身加大工作力度,中央和省级层面加大帮扶人员选派和资金的投入。比如凉山,四川省就从凉山州外的地方,在省内调剂了5700人到凉山驻村帮扶。再比如说中央财政专项扶贫资金的支持,去年新增了200亿,120亿用到了“三区三州”,占60%;今年新增了200亿,135亿用到了“三区三州”,65%用到了“三区三州”,加大了支持的力度。应该说这么下来以后,成效还是比较明显的。

Second, we must identify which are the extremely poor areas most needing help. Apart from the aforementioned three regions and three prefectures, there are many other pockets of extreme poverty, such as Zhaotong in Yunnan and Bijie in Guizhou, which need to be identified and assessed by local provincial governments. Third, we must expand support for poverty alleviation in the extremely poor areas, with greater efforts being made by local communities, as well as greater allocation of personnel and budgetary input by central and provincial governments.

深度贫困地区脱贫攻坚方案得到了较好的实施,进度都超过计划。比如在资金的投入方面,到目前为止已经接近80%的资金到位了,这是三年的计划,我们还有一年多的时间,但接近80%的资金都到位了。去年“三区三州”有305万贫困人口,去年一年就减少了133万人,还剩172万人。去年“三区三州”的贫困发生率下降速度比中西部快3.3个百分点,高了一倍。下一步,我们不能放松,深度贫困地区仍然是重点,要继续保持这个力度,对进度慢的地方要挂牌督办。谢谢。

The implementation of a three-year action plan for poverty alleviation in the extremely poor areas has been progressing ahead of schedule. Up to now, nearly 80% of the planned funding has been made available, while we still have over a year to implement the plan in its entirety. Last year, the number of poor people in the three regions and three prefectures affected by extreme poverty fell from 3.05 million to 1.72 million, with 1.33 million people being able to escape from their chronic poverty. Going forward, we will continue focusing on our poverty alleviation work related to the extremely poor areas with as much care and intensity as ever. A time limit will be set for the fight against poverty under the supervision of relevant authorities in some localities where the implementation is deemed to be falling behind schedule. Thank you.?

赵江涛:

Zhao Jiangtao:

感谢大家的关注和参与,今天的发布会到此结束。谢谢大家。

Thanks for your careful attention and attendance today. The press conference is hereby concluded. Thank you all.


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